TINKER AIR FORCE BASE, Okla. --
The Cessna L-19 “Bird Dog” was a relatively simple, strut-braced, high-wing, single-engine aircraft mainly used by American forces in the observation and Forward Air Control mission. Bird Dog’s contributed significantly to the FAC and personnel rescue missions during the Vietnam War.
The L-19 was a version of Cessna’s popular Model 170 (C-170) with most of the civilian niceties removed and optimized for military use. These changes brought about Cessna’s designation of C-305A and included windows above the cockpit in the wing’s center section along with a redesigned rear cockpit area to give a better view to the rear and downward. The aircraft was also optimized for operations from unimproved airfields and militarized not only through its military paint-scheme, but also with hardpoint provisions for launching up to eight unguided white-phosphorous rockets to mark targets.
Tinker Air Force Base performed maintenance, repair and overhaul of L-19/O-1 aircraft and engines, according to Tinker work production documents held by the History Office. Because Tinker performed O-series engine maintenance for many aircraft types, many of the L-19/O-1 engines may have passed through here during the aircrafts’ service life independent of the aircraft itself.
The L-19 has a standard tail configuration and sits on fixed main landing gear with a tailwheel. The tandem, two-place cockpit allowed the pilot to fly from the front cockpit while an observer or second pilot occupied the rear cockpit, if required/desired. The aircraft is an all-metal design with basic cockpit instruments and radio with additional provisions for VHF/UHF radios for communicating with strike aircraft and downed pilots/crew.
While the Air Force acted as the purchasing agency, it was not the intended (original) recipient of the Bird Dog. L-19As entered service with the Army in December 1950 and shortly thereafter with the Marine Corps. Some early aircraft served in combat during the Korean War as light observation and forward air controllers. However, the most significant use of the L-19 came during the Vietnam War. Beginning in 1962, the L-19 series of aircraft was redesignated to O-1 to better reflect their ‘observation’ mission.
Between December 1950 and October 1954 Cessna delivered 2,486 L-19As to the military with 60 going to the Marine Corps. An additional 945 aircraft were delivered before production ended in 1958. Some airframes were passed along to other nations through the foreign military sales program to including South Vietnam and Thailand. Fuji Heavy Industries produced 60 license-built aircraft for the Japanese Self-Defense Force.
Air Force L-19/O-1s were former Army O-1A’s and Army dual control trainers known as TO-1Ds. These were designated O-1E and O-1G in Air Force service. Maintaining their basic airframe and operational configurations, the only significant change was a change to Air Force markings with some also receiving an overall light-gray paint scheme. The O-1 Bird Dog played a significant role through its ability to loiter over the battlefield for up to five hours at a time, mark targets while talking to attacking strike pilots and assist in the rescue of downed personnel. However, flying the Bird Dog was especially dangerous as the aircraft had no protective hardening and operated at relatively low altitudes making it susceptible to even small-arms fire.
The L-19/O-1 Bird Dog design was finally retired from active military service by the mid-1980s having been largely replaced by the more capable Cessna O-2A Skymaster and Rockwell OV-10 Bronco. Many O-1s were deemed excess property and passed along to other government and state agencies, as well as to civilian buyers. The Bird Dog remains a popular and inexpensive warbird in the hands of civilian pilots to this day.
Engine type: L-19/O-1
Nickname: Bird Dog
Power plant: Horizontally-opposed Continental O470 engine with 185 horsepower
In-service dates: 1950 to mid-1980s
Number produced: 3,431
Tinker connection: Maintenance, repair and overhaul